An Overview of Tectonics & Sedimentation Interrelationship
F. Hasan Sidi1 & Herman Darman2
1 VICO Indonesia, Kuningan Tower 2, Jl. R. Rasuna Said, Jakarta Selatan;
2 SHELL Indonesia, S. Widjojo Centre 4th. flr. Jl. Jend. Sudirman 71, Jakarta Selatan;
For more than a century geoscientists had related tectonic to sedimentation by associating geosynclines with thick accumulations of sedimentation. Until the middle of 20th century, sedimentary basins were still rationalized and classified in terms of geosynclinal theory (Dott, 1978), including the publication of "Geology of Indonesia" in 1949 by R.W. van Bemmelen. The advent of plate tectonic theory led to a revival interest of tectonic and sedimentation since the development of this theory had provided fresh perspectives to build and constraint models of deep lithospheric behavior. Most of the sedimentary basins can now be explained in terms of plate-margin processes and consequently make the structure and stratigraphy have become more understandable. The plate tectonic theory demonstrated that one of the most important controls on sedimentation and deformation is the position of a sedimentary basin relative to either a plate or a continent-ocean boundary.
In general, there are two
major styles of sedimentary basins, 1) the basins generated by crustal
extension during divergent plate movements, and 2) the basins formed by
compression and crustal thickening during convergent plate movements
(Figure 1). From these two major groups, several detail classifications of
sedimentary basins in terms of plate boundary settings have been
attempted, such as Dickinson (1974), Mitchell & Reading (1986) and Miall
Indonesia's Regional Framework
Indonesia lies at the
junction of three major crustal plates, the Pacific, the Australian, and
the Eurasian (Figure 3). The intersection of these plates is responsible
for the creation of one of the world's most complex geological settings. A
large amount of geological study has been done and the main publications
that stand out are the compilation of Van Bemmelen. So far, however, there
are still no such comprehensive publication replaces Van Bemmelen's which
utilizing modern concepts and broader amount of data.
Where to From Here
In conclusions, the
recognition of tectonic signatures within the sedimentary successions
might reveal the interaction of sedimentation, tectonic, eustatic, and
possibly climatic processes in a basin. Sedimentation is related to
tectonic movements in two significant ways, 1) many aspects of the origin
and accumulation of sediments are controlled by large-scale tectonic
movements, and 2) sedimentary strata that were horizontal when deposited
but are no longer horizontal can be employed to delineate and measure the
extents of structural deformations.
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